环境微生物学

环境微生物学

图书基本信息
出版时间:2010-1
出版社:科学
作者:(美)迈尔
页数:598
字数:550000
书名:环境微生物学
封面图片
环境微生物学

前言
环境微生物学的历史可以追溯到对城市废物的处理和处置研究。在第一版的《环境微生物学》中,我们就认识到这门学科的研究领域已经拓展到土壤、水和大气系统,包括土著微生物与有机/无机污染物的相互作用,进入这些系统的病原体的行为,还包括新的微生物及其产物的发现和应用,以造福人类健康或谋得福祉。在第一版问世后的这些年间,有关各种环境下微生物以及群落的知识出现了前所未有的爆炸。因此,在《环境微生物学》第二版中,我们增加了对极端环境以及微生物群落和微生物之间信息传递的章节。类似地,出于对日益增加的人口压力和气候变化的认识,我们新增了室内微生物学、生物恐怖主义,以及全球变化对微生物传染病的影响等章节。微生物可谓无处不在,它们遍布于世界上每一个角落,任何一处你能想象得到的环境中都有这些微小的生命。比如在土壤中,一克土壤就含有数十亿个微生物,并且蕴含着所有与这些微生物相联系的代谢活动。考虑到微生物巨大的生物多样性,可以想象一下,如果要研究地球上每个生物群系中发现的所有微生物的主要组别,需要面对多大的挑战啊。那么不妨再想象一下,要发展合适的策略和方法来利用和操纵它们,又需要面对多大的挑战。其实,这些就是环境微生物学要做的工作。我们邀请您读读这本书,从而开始一段令人兴奋的历险旅程:了解多种多样环境中的不同微生物。本书共有8个部分,循序递进:(一)基础部分,为后面更为专深的章节提供充分的知识背景;(二)微生物环境,包括土壤、水体和大气;(三)关于微生物活性的检测和定量分析,包括培养法、显微观察、生理学方法、分子生物学方法和免疫学方法;(四)微生物与环境的相互影响,从元素的循环到微生物的信息传递再到细菌群落的发育和运动;(五)金属污染和有机污染的微生物修复;(六)水和食物来源的病原体;(七)废弃物的处理和饮用水;(八)城市问题,包括家庭和室内微生物,生物恐怖主义以及风险评估。这本教材是为环境微生物学专业的高年级本科生或研究生编写的,也可以作为对这一领域感兴趣的科学家和工程师的参考书。总体上,本书旨在介绍环境微生物学中重要的微生物、微生物所依赖的不同环境的特性、检测微生物及其活性的方法,最后评价了微生物对人类活动的影响。本书是三位学者共同努力的结果,他们在环境微生物学中的研究领域虽各不相同,却又相辅相成。他们是亚利桑那大学的亲密合作伙伴,有着大量的科研项目,并一起广泛运用先进的跨学科方法研究各种实际问题,如极端环境中的微生物、微生物表面活性剂在生物技术领域的应用、新出现的病原菌的分子检测、微生物和DNA在土壤中的迁移以及微生物的风险评价。这些涉及领域广泛的研究为本书阐明重要的知识点提供了大量例证。三位作者在亚利桑那大学的11位同事也为此做出了重要贡献。
内容概要
本书旨在介绍环境微生物学中重要的微生物、微生物所依赖的不同环境的特性、检测微生物及其活性的方法,还评价了微生物对人类活动的影响。三位作者是亚利桑那大学的亲密合作伙伴,在环境微生物学中的研究领域各不相同,却又相辅相成。这些涉及领域广泛的研究为本书阐明重要的知识点提供了大量例证。多位撰稿人的贡献也使此书在深度和广度上具有延续性,内容上则与当下的研究前沿基本一致。    根据国内读者的需要,导读版分为基础篇和拓展篇,所配光盘包含原著全部彩图。这本教材适用于环境微生物学专业的高年级本科生或研究生,也可以作为对这一领域感兴趣的科学家和工程师的参考书。
作者简介
作者:(美国)迈尔(Raina M.Maier) (美国)Ian L.Pepper (美国)Charles P.Gerba 合著者:刘和 陈坚
书籍目录
前言致谢作者撰稿作者基础篇
第一部分
微生物的基本概念
第1章
环境微生物学绪论
1.1
引言
1.2
历史回顾
1.3
现代环境微生物学
1.4
本书的用途和结构
第2章
微生物类群
2.1
生物分类
2.2
真细菌
2.2.1
细胞膜
2.2.2
细胞质
2.2.3
多糖包被
2.2.4
细胞的附加物
2.2.5
内生孢子
2.2.6
信息传递
2.2.7
新陈代谢
2.3
古细菌
2.3.1
古细菌的生境
2.3.2
古细菌的功能
2.4
真菌
2.4.1
真菌结构
2.4.2
真菌的多样性
2.4.3
生态学重要性
2.5
黏液菌类
2.6
原生动物
2.6.1
原生动物的结构和功能
2.6.2
生理学和生态学上的重要性
2.7
藻类
2.7.1
藻类细胞的结构
2.7.2
生理学和生态学上的重要性
2.8
病毒
2.8.1
病毒的传染特性
2.8.2
原核病毒
2.8.3
真核病毒
2.9
其他生物实体
2.9.1
类病毒
2.9.2
朊病毒
参考文献
第3章
细菌的生长
3.1
细菌在烧瓶纯培养条件下的生长
3.1.1
延迟期
3.1.2
指数期
3.1.3
稳定期
3.1.4
衰亡期
3.1.5
底物浓度对生长的影响
3.2
连续培养
3.3
在环境中的生长
3.3.1
延迟期
3.3.2
指数期
3.3.3
稳定期和衰亡期
3.4
生长质量平衡
3.4.1
好氧条件
3.4.2
厌氧条件
思考题
参考文献与扩展阅读
第二部分
微生物的生长环境
第三部分
检测、计数和鉴定拓展篇
第四部分
微生物的信息传递,活动,以及与环境和营养循环的相互作用
第五部分
有机污染物与金属污染物的治理
第六部分
水源性和食源性病原菌
第七部分
废水处理与消毒
第八部分
城市微生物索引

章节摘录
插图:1.3
MODERN
ENVIRONMENTALMICROBIOLOGYIn
modern
environmental
microbiology,
pathogens
and
bioremediation
remain
fundamental
to
the
field,
but
in
both
cases
these
subject
areas
have
been
greatly
enhanced
through
the
application
of
molecular
genetics
and
biotechnology
tools.
For
example,
development
and
assessment
of
new
methods
of
detection
and
elimination
of
pathogens
in
our
water
and
food
supply,
as
well
as
the
indoor
environment
we
live
in
today,
have
become
critical
to
public
health
with
the
global
growth
in
population.
Arguably,
human
and
environmental
hygiene
efforts
have
had
the
greatest
impact
on
reducing
human
suffering
throughout
the
past
century.This
is
also
true
today
as
we
see
the
evolution
of
new
and
more
virulent
forms
of
environmentally
transmitted
pathogens.
This
has
been
highlighted
by
concerns
about
the
spread
of
SARS
and
the
potential
for
the
rapid
spread
of
avian
bird
flu.
Vaccine
development
is
often
not
rapid
enough
to
guarantee
protection
and
so
the
environmental
microbiologist
must
be
prepared
to
develop
better
methods
to
reduce
or
stop
the
spread
of
these
agents
throughout
the
environment.
Continuing
outbreaks
of
norovirus
diarrhea
on
cruise
ships
has
demonstrated
how
difficult
an
environ-mentally
spread
agent
can
be
to
control.
New
strategies
are
needed,
such
as
the
development
of
self-disinfecting
surfaces,
environmentally
friendly
disinfectants,
more
rapid
methods
of
detecting
indicators
and
pathogens
in
our
environment.
In
addition,
application
of
risk
assessment
to
target
the
need
for
control
where
it
is
most
effective
and
better
products
for
the
consumer
are
reducing
the
risk
associated
with
environmentally
transmitted
infections.The
beginning
of
this
century
brought
a
new
task
for
environmental
microbiologists
in
the
area
of
pathogen
detection.
The
impact
of
just
a
few
letters
contaminated
with
anthrax
spores
demonstrated
how
rapidly
a
terrorist
could
disseminate
a
highly
virulent
pathogen
across
an
entire
region
of
a
nation.
It
also
demonstrated
how
little
we
know
about
the
transport,
survival,
and
methods
of
decontamination
of
lethal
agents
that
could
be
used
by
bioterrorists.
National
security
now
depends
on
the
development
of
methods
for
detection
of
select
agents
in
the
environment
and
models
to
assess
their
fate
and
control.New
challenges
have
similarly
emerged
in
the
area
of
bioremediation.
New
chemicals
have
been
detected
in
ground
and
surface
waters
that
serve
as
our
potable
water
resources.
In
addition,
our
ability
to
detect
chemicals
has
gotten
better
and
more
comprehensive.
For
these
reasons
we
have
discovered
contamination
in
previously
"clean"
sources
of
water.
Further,
as
society
grows,
we
put
increasing
stress
on
water
resources.
In
many
parts
of
the
United
States,
for
example,
groundwater
is
currently
being
used
at
a
faster
rate
than
it
is
being
recharged.
Add
to
this
increasing
wasted
is
charges
containing
biological
and
chemical
contamination
that
enter
our
water
resources,
and
it
becomes
clear
that
environmental
microbiologists
face
large
challenges
in
this
arena.
These
issues
also
arise
in
contaminated
soil
environments.
As
the
global
population
increases,
land
resources
are
becoming
more
valuable
and
communities
are
encroaching
on
contaminated
sites,
including
landfills,mine
railings
sites,
and
agricultural
fields
with
years
of
pesticide
applications.
New
strategies
are
needed
in
this
area
to
treat
sites
that
contain
emerging
contaminants,
contaminant
mixtures,
and
low
levels
of
contaminants.
Applications
of
risk
assessment
to
target
the
need
for
control
where
it
is
most
effective,
and
for
community
education
to
reduce
risks
associated
with
living
next
to
contaminated
sites,
are
also
becoming
more
important.
A
third
important
area
of
environmental
microbiology
has
emerged
over
the
past
decade,
that
of
mole
culaecology.
Molecular
ecology
as
it
relates
to
environment
almicrobiology
can
be
defined
as
investigating
diversity
in
he
environment,
and
mining
and
exploiting
that
diversity
for
new
natural
products
and
activities.
Molecular-based
methodologies
are
now
enabling
us
to
detect,
define,
and
better
understand
the
ecology
not
only
of
natural
habitats
such
as
soil
and
water,
but
also
of
anthropologic
environments
such
as
households,
fomites,
or
municipal
wastes.Powerful
molecular-based
tools
are
becoming
available
to
allow
the
examination
of
microbial
communities
through
analys
is
of
microbial
DNA
and
RNA
(PCR,
gene
probes,DNA
sequencing,
meta
genomics)
as
well
as
proteins(proteomics).
Such
techniques
now
allow
us
to
search
for
new
microbes
in
extreme
environments
such
as
hot
springs,caves,
deep-sea
thermal
vents,
and
deep
subsurface
environments.
Molecular
sequence
analysis
of
community
DNA
permits
a
new
appreciation
of
microbial
diversity,
and
also
of
how
microbial
communities
function
and
communicate
via
quorum
sensing.
This
new
evaluation
of
the
microbial
environment
is
also
affording
innovative
approaches
to
the
discovery
of
high
value
"green"
products
that
can
be
use
din
medicine,
agriculture,
and
industry.
Examples
include
new
antibiotics
and
other
natural
products,
plant-growth-promoting
bacteria
to
enhance
growth
of
crops,
and
new
chemicals
that
can
be
used
as
detergents,
solvents,
surfactants,
pesticides,
and
in
food
processing.
编辑推荐
《环境微生物学:基础篇(导读版)(原著第2版)》的前言和目录均已译成中文,正文部分保留英文原版。另附江南大学陈坚教授、刘和博士所作的中文导读一篇。章节目录:第一部分 微生物的基本概念第1章 环境微生物学绪论第2章 微生物类群第3章 细菌的生长第二部分 微生物的生长环境第4章 陆地环境第5章 大气微生物学第6章 水环境第7章 极端环境第三部分 检测、计数和鉴定第8章 样品的采集与处理第9章 显微技术第10章 培养方法第11章 生理学方法第12章 免疫学方法第13章 建立在核酸基础上的分析方法……


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评论与打分
  •     很好的英文教材和参考书
  •     该书只是原著的一部分,只有前200多页,大部分有用的内容"导读版"却删节了,真不知道为什么编辑还将目录将人翻译了!真不知道他是如何想的!!